Another way to transform waste into gardening gold is a worm bin, in which our favorite little hermaphrodites break down food waste into worm castings. A worm bin acts like a living garbage disposal, transforming kitchen and paper waste into nutrient-rich soil. You can keep one indoors during the cooler months (they do not stink unless something goes wrong0 or outside when above freezing.
In milder climates, you can build one outside from cinder blocks to provide some insulation during cooler temperatures. If you have space for it on an enclosed porch or a quiet corner of your kitchen, an indoor bin can be made out of a 5- or 10-gallon opaque plastic tub. Black or dark plastic or wood is ideal to reduce the amount of light that reaches the worms. To provide your worm colony with air, drill 1/8-inch holes about 1 inch apart all the way around…
Though lots of attention and encouragement has been given to composting and donating leftover food, the first step we can take is to reduce the amount of food produced. Reducing food portions will help immensely and play an important role lessening the waste. Not only is it a good cost control measure to do an inventory of all of your food products, but it will also ensure that perishable food does not go bad before you get to use it. By putting in place and respecting an organized inventory process, waste of easily perishable food can go down. This will also help in reducing food costs greatly.
Every year, 475 pounds of food waste is produced by the average person adding up to more than 70 million tons in our landfills. Not only does the waste attract vermin, it emits odors and liquids that are toxic to the environment. As a result, the methane gas generated from the waste is 20 to 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide. Food waste has become a big issue in all types of businesses.
This is especially true in the hospitality industry. Haute cuisine, all you can eat buffets, and in room dining are all an integral part of the hospitality experience. But what happens to all the leftovers once guests are done eating? Most of it will be hauled off to landfills at a great cost to the establishment and an even greater cost to the environment.
Our report will look at and provide statistics on…
Human beings live in nature and depend on the resources of nature. The utilization of soil, water, coal, forest, gas, etc, is very important for the development of nation. These resources have changed the level of living standard of man. Solid waste is regarded as the resources. Solid waste can be described as non-liquid refusals from household, industrial and commercial establishment, market and public places. These all refusals can be used as resources in one way or other, and can be recycled, reused or transform into other forms of resources.
Solid waste may be organic and inorganic. The best way to manage the organic waste is to make manure by composting. There are different methods of composting such as:
a) Bin composting d) pile composting
b) Vermicomposting e) pit composting
c) Box composting
Vermicomposting is one of the best ways of making compost. Vermicomposting is the process of…
We are talking composting today. Composting is a great way to organically replenish nutrients and add create that beautiful dark brown soil everyone is looking for in their garden. There are a number of different composting methods but we are going to talk about a compost pile.
The first thing you need to do is choose the location. You should choose a location that is mostly shady. The compost heats up as it breaks down, and if it is in full sun, it will heat up too much and kill some of the essential bacteria used for breaking down the organic matter.
Next is to build or set up what you will be using to hold your compost. Just remember that it needs oxygen to break down, so don’t build it air tight. Even using chicken wire can be a great way to contain the pile.
The methodology of composting can be categorized into three major segments—anaerobic composting, aerobic composting, and vermicomposting. In anaerobic composting, the organic matter is decomposed in the absence of air. Organic matter may be collected in pits and covered with a thick layer of soil and left undisturbed six to eight months. The compost so formed may not be completely converted and may include aggregated masses.
Aerobic compostingis the process by which organic wastes are converted into compost or manure in presence of air and can be of different types. The most common is the Heap Method, where organic matter needs to be divided into three different types and to be placed in a heap one over the other, covered by a thin layer of soil or dry leaves. This heap needs to be mixed every week, and it takes about three weeks for conversion to take place. The process is same in the Pit Method, but carried out specially constructed pits. Mixing has to be done every 15 days, and there is no fixed time in which the compost may be ready. Berkley Method uses a labor-intensive technique and has precise requirements of the material to be composted. Easily biodegradable materials, such as grass, vegetable matter, etc., are mixed with animal matter in the ratio of 2:1. Compost is usually ready in 15 days.
Vermicomposting involves use of earthworms as natural and versatile bioreactors for the process of conversion. It is carried out in specially designed pits where earthworm culture also needs to be done. Vermicomposting is a precision-based option and requires overseeing of work by an expert. It is also a more expensive option (O&M costs especially are high). However, unlike the above two options, it is a completely odorless process making it a preferred solution in residential areas. It also has an extremely high rate of conversion, so quality of the end product is very high with rich macro and micronutrients. The end product also has the advantage that it can be dried and stored safely for a longer period of time.
It seems everyone is concerned about the environment and trying to reduce their “carbon footprint”. I hope this trend will continue and grow as a nationwide way to live and not turn into a fad. Composting has been around for MANY years. Composting is a great way to keep biodegradables out of the landfill and to reap the reward of some fabulous “black gold”. That’s what master gardeners call compost and it’s great for improving your soil. Plants love it. Check out 10 Rules to Remember About Composting.
Layer your compost bin with dry and fresh ingredients: The best way to start a compost pile is to make yourself a bin either with wood or chicken wire. Layering fresh grass clippings and dried leaves is a great start.
Remember to turn your compost pile: As the ingredients in your compost pile start to biodegrade they will start to get hot. To avoid your compost pile rotting and stinking you need to turn the pile to aerate it. This addition of air into the pile will speed up the decomposition.
Add water to your compost pile: Adding water will also speed up the process of scraps turning into compost. Don’t add too much water, but if you haven’t gotten any rain in a while it’s a good idea to add some water to the pile just to encourage it along.
Don’t add meat scraps to your pile: Vegetable scraps are okay to add to your compost pile, but don’t add meat scraps. Not only do they stink as they rot, but they will attract unwanted guests like raccoons that will get into your compost bin and make a mess of it.
If possible have more than one pile going: Since it takes time for raw materials to turn into compost you may want to have multiple piles going at the same time. Once you fill up the first bin start a second one and so on. That way you can allow the ingredient in the first pile to completely transform into compost and still have a place to keep putting your new scraps and clippings. This also allows you to always keep a supply of compost coming for different planting seasons.
Never put trash in your compost pile: Just because something says that it is recyclable it doesn’t mean that it should necessarily go into the compost bin. For example, newspapers will compost and can be put into a compost pile, but you will want to shred the newspapers and not just toss them in the bin in a stack. Things like plastic and tin should not be put into a compost pile, but can be recycled in other ways.
Allow your compost to complete the composting process before using: It might be tempting to use your new compost in your beds as soon as it starts looking like black soil, but you need to make sure that it’s completely done composting otherwise you could be adding weed seeds into your beds and you will not be happy with the extra weeds that will pop up.
Straw can be added if dried leaves are not available: Dried materials as well as green materials need to be added to a compost bin. In the Fall you will have a huge supply of dried leaves, but what do you do if you don’t have any dried leaves? Add straw or hay to the compost bin, but again these will often contain weed seeds so be careful to make sure they are completely composted before using them.
Egg Shells and Coffee grounds are a great addition: Not only potato skins are considered kitchen scraps. Eggshells and coffee grounds are great additions to compost piles because they add nutrients that will enhance the quality of the end product.
Never put pet droppings in your compost pile: I’m sure you’ve heard that manure is great for your garden, but cow manure is cured for quite a while before used in a garden. Pet droppings are far to hot and acidic for a home compost pile and will just make it stink.
The composting process is a complex interaction between the waste and the microorganisms within the waste. The microorganisms that carry out this process fall into three groups: bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes.Actinomycetes are a form of fungi-like bacteria that break down organic matter. The first stage of the biological activity is the consumption of easily available sugars by bacteria, which causes a fast rise in temperature. The second stage involves bacteria and actinomycetes that cause cellulose breakdown. The last stage is concerned with the breakdown of the tougher lignins by fungi.
Central solutions are exemplified by low-cost composting without forced aeration, and technologically more advanced systems with forced aeration and temperature feedback. Central composting plants are capable of handling more than 100,000 tons of biodegradable waste per year, but typically the plant size is about 10,000 to 30,000 tons per year. Biodegradable wastes must be separated prior to composting: Only pure foodwaste, garden waste, wood chips, and to some extent paper are suitable for producing good-quality compost.
The composting plants consist of some or all of the following technical units: bag openers, magnetic and/or ballistic separators, screeners (sieves), shredders, mixing and homogenization equipment, turning equipment, irrigation systems, aeration systems, draining systems, bio-filters, scrubbers, control systems, and steering systems. The composting process occurs when biodegradable waste is piled together with a structure allowing for oxygen diffusion and with a dry matter content suiting microbial growth. The temperature of the biomass increases due to the microbial activity and the insulation properties of the piled material. The temperature often reaches 65 degrees C to 75 degrees C within a few days and then declines slowly. This high temperature hastens the elimination of pathogens and weed seeds.