Public transportation like subway or buses in Sweden’s Hammarby sjostad city are running by 100 percent recycled energy. Hammarby sjostad is known as “the city with zero carbon emission.” It is easy to spot people putting bio-gas in their vehicles at every gas stations in Hammarby sjostad city.
For self-sustaining combustion, there should be a heat content of at least 2500 kcal/kg (about 5000 Btu/lb). Usually below 1500 kcal/kg, it is not recommended for combustion. Indian MSW is infamous for its low heat content (770 to 1000 kcal/kg, on dry basis, sometimes as low as 600 kcal/kg), high moisture content (30 to 55 % by weight) and high inert contents (30 to 50 % by weight). It is a fact that Indian MSW is not directly suitable for incineration. Waste preparation is a must for incinerating Indian MSW. Waste should be dried; inerts removed and heat content improved to about 2500 kcal/kg.
In order to determine whether a thermal processing project is a feasible waste management alternative for any city, the following questions should be addressed:
- Is source-segregation practiced in the target area?
- Is the thermochemical technology approved by the MNRE and the CPCB?
- Is there a buyer for the energy (electricity/CHP) produced by the energy recovery facility?
- Is there strong political and public support for a WTE facility?
- Are there enough funds to establish state-of-the-art small modular gasification / pyrolysis plant?
Elements of successful Advanced Thermal WTE Project
- Waste segregation
- Waste receiving and storage capability
- Waste preparation plant
- Gasification/pyrolysis process
- Syngas treatment process
- CHP / Power generation