Organic Waste in South Africa

Southeast Michigan Waste

With waste to landfill becoming an ever critical concern, the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa (IWMSA) calls to attention the necessity for managing all our waste streams, especially that of organic waste.

Anything from 35% to 40% of all waste that is sent to landfill is organic; that is, of plant or animal origin, and able to be broken down by other living organisms. “Something that is not often stressed, is that despite the fact that waste may be organic, once it reaches a landfill and decomposes under anaerobic conditions (where oxygen is not present), it is responsible for producing quantities of methane gas as well as releasing potentially hazardous chemicals into the landfill’s leachate, and thence into the groundwater,” says Stan Jewaskiewitz, president of the IWMSA.

Landfills have limited lifespans

“We may think that our biodegradable waste is fairly harmless, but this is a misconception and needs…

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Salman Zafar’s Articles in ISER

Renewable energy in South Africa

Issue 4 2010 / 13 December 2010 / Salman Zafar, Renewable Energy Advisor

South Africa, the most industrialised country in Africa, has a population of approximately 50 million living on a land area of 1.2 million km2. The country has large reserves of coal and uranium, and small reserves of crude oil and natural gas. Coal provides 75% of the fossil fuel demand and accounts for 91% of electricity generation. South Africa is enjoying sustained GDP growth of approximately 5% per annum. (more…)

Renewable Energy in Jordan

Issue 3 2010 / 14 October 2010 / Salman Zafar, Renewable Energy Advisor

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is heavily dependent on oil imports from neighbouring countries to meet its energy requirements. The huge cost associated with energy imports creates a financial burden on the national economy and Jordan had to spend almost 20% of its GDP on the purchase of energy in 2008. Electricity demand is growing rapidly, and the Jordanian Government has been seeking ways to attract foreign investment to fund additional capacity. In 2008, the demand for electricity in Jordan was 2,260 MW, which is expected to rise to 5,770 MW by 2020. Therefore, provision of reliable and clean energy supply will play a vital role in Jordan’s economic growth.

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Biomass energy resources in the MENA region

Issue 4 2009Past issues / 22 December 2009 / Salman Zafar, Renewable Energy Advisor

The high volatility in oil prices in the recent past and the resulting turbulence in energy markets has compelled many MENA countries, especially the non-oil producers, to look for alternate sources of energy, for both economic and environmental reasons. The significance of renewable energy has been increasing rapidly worldwide due to its potential to mitigate climate change, to foster sustainable development in poor communities and augment energy security and supply.

The major biomass producing MENA countries are Sudan, Egypt, Algeria, Yemen, Iraq, Syria and Jordan. Traditionally, biomass energy has been widely used in rural areas for domestic purposes in the MENA region. Since most of the region is arid/semi-arid, the biomass energy potential is mainly contributed by municipal solid wastes, agricultural residues and agro-industrial wastes.

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African Development Bank (AfDB) and Clean Energy

The African Development Bank (AfDB) has supported its member countries in their energy development initiatives for more than four decades. With growing concerns about climate change, AfDB has identified a host of clean energy projects and programs in its pipeline for 2010-2014 to set Africa on a low carbon growth path and develop clean energy systems in the African continent. The AfDB’s Clean Energy Investment Framework aims at promoting sustainable development and contributing to global emissions reduction efforts by using a three-pronged approach: maximize clean energy options, emphasize energy efficiency and enable African countries to participate effectively in CDM sector.

The FINESSE Africa Program, financed by the Dutch Government, has been the mainstay of AfDB’s support of renewable energy and energy efficiency since 2004. FINESSE programme has been instrumental in developing a portfolio of sustainable energy projects for the Bank. In addition, the Bank’s Private Sector Department, with support from the Danish Renewable Energy Technical Assistance, has compiled a project pipeline comprised of small- to large-scale wind-power projects, mini, small and large hydro-power projects, cogeneration power projects, geothermal power projects and biodiesel projects across Africa. The AfDB’s interventions to support climate change mitigation in Africa are driven by sound policies and strategies and through its financing initiatives the Bank endeavors to become a major force in clean energy development in Africa.

South Africa's Progress in Renewable Energy

South Africa, the most industrialized country in Africa, is highly dependent on conventional fuels which make it one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world. Coal provides around 75% of the fossil fuel demand and accounts for 90% of power generation in the country. A smooth transition to a low-carbon society requires diversification of energy resources to other energy forms, especially renewable energy. The country is endowed with abundant sunshine, good wind regimes and attractive biomass feedstocks which could provide sufficient means to replenish energy supplies and counter environmental degradation.

According to the Government’s White Paper on Renewable Energy Policy (2003), renewable energy projects are aimed to deliver the equivalent of 10,000 GWh by 2013, from wind, solar, biomass and hydro resources. Some of the larger projects that are under development include the Darling wind farm and the Bethlehem hydro scheme. Other projects such as landfill to gas and existing hydro-electric power stations are already making a contribution. South Africa, like other developing countries, faces the dual challenge of pursuing economic growth and environmental protection, and sustainable energy systems offer the possibility of resolving this problem.

For access to the full report, please contact the author at salman@bioenergyconsult.com